Autism : Bhupendr Rawat
The autism spectrum disorders are a heterogenous neuro of meri behavioural syndrome, characterised by difficulties in the development of social relationships and communication skills, limited or severely impaired imagination and extremely repetitive and rigid patterns of behaviour,and marked by the presence of unusually strong narrow interest.
There is no single cause for these disorder. This disorder appear during the first three years of life, and know no racial, ethnic,or social boundaries. Family income, life style and educational level do not effect the chance of autism's occurrence.
The word 'Autism' was first used by Bleuler, a swiss psychiatrist in1911 to refer to schizophrenia.
Then, over 50 year ago, Leo kanner(1896-1981), published a paper I. 1943 on "early infantile autism'' to this group of children, all of whom appeared to share common characteristics such as withdrawal and ritualistic behaviours.
After Kanner, paediatrician Hans Asperger (1906-1980) described an autistic disorder in older children in an article called "psychopathy in childhood" (1944) in this article he shows the case study of several children, and defines with example - " a particularly interesting and highly recognisable type of child" and the term asperger disorder came to be used to describe a major sub-group of autism who has normal intelligence and relatively minor interference with language devlopment.
Asperger noticed these children because of their lack of interest in group activities and preference for their own company.
The movement for autism gradually spread across the world, but still little has been written on autism in developing countries as compare with what has been published on autism in North America and Europe.
The word "Autism" appeared first time in Indian literature in 1959, and half dozen publications appeared through the 1960's.
In the late 1970s, there were a few centers in India that were diagnosing children with autism.
By the early 1980s there began a slow growth of "awareness of autism among professionals. To some extent they had been acquainted the existence of autism. In 1988, the movie "Rain man" brought autism to the consciousness of the educated community.
DSE(ASD) manual (RCI)